The Pomeranian (often known as a Pom) is a breed of dog of the Spitz type that is named for the Pomerania region in north-west Poland and north-east Germany in Central Europe.
Classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size, the Pomeranian is descended from the larger Spitz-type dogs, specifically the German Spitz. It has been determined by the Fédération Cynologique International to be part of the German Spitz breed; and in many countries, they are known as the Zwergspitz (“Dwarf-Spitz”). Overall, the Pomeranian is a sturdy, healthy dog. Pomeranians are small dogs weighing 1.36–3.17 kilograms (3.0–7.0 lb) and standing 6–7 inches (15–18 cm) high at the withers. They are compact but sturdy dogs with an abundant textured coat with a highly plumed tail set high and flat. The top coat forms a ruff of fur on the neck, which Poms are well known for, and they also have a fringe of feathery hair on the hindquarters. The earliest examples of the breed were white or occasionally brown or black. Queen Victoria adopted a small red Pomeranian in 1888, which caused that color to become fashionable by the end of the 19th century. In modern times, the Pomeranian comes in the widest variety of colors of any dog breed, including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable, black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, and parti, plus combinations of those colors. The merle Pomeranian is a recent color developed by breeders. It is a combination of a solid base color with a lighter blue/grey patch which gives a mottled effect. The most common base colors for the effect are red/brown or black, although it can also appear with other colors.